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Reflexive Verbs - Part 2 (Other Tenses & Uses)
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  Verb Tenses  
    An introduction to verbs & personal pronouns  
    Verbs - Ser (to be) Estar (to be)  
    The present simple tense - regular verbs (I am)  
    The present simple tense - irregular verbs (I am)  
    The past simple tense - regular verbs (I was)  
    The past simple tense - irregular verbs (I was)  
    The imperfect tense - all verbs (I used to)  
    The future tense - all verbs (I will be)  
    The continuous tenses (I am going)  
    The perfect tenses - regular and irregular verbs  
    The conditional tense - regular and irregular verbs  
    The present subjunctive tense  
    The past subjunctive tense (If I were to)  
    The infinitive tense (verbs in their original forms - to be)  
    The imperative tense (command verbs - go / stay etc)  
    'Haber' with the conditional and past subjunctive tenses  
  More About Verbs  
    Reflexive verbs - Part 1  
    Reflexive verbs - Part 2  
    The 'Gerund' (the equivalent of forming 'ing...' verbs)  
    'Gustar' and similar verbs - A different way of using verbs  
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    Adverbs - Part 1 - (words ending in -ly in English)  
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Summary of Lesson
Taking the general formation rules used to formulate reflexive verbs as illustrated with the present simple tense in 'Reflexive verbs part 1' and applying them to other tenses.
How reflexive pronouns may be positioned differently when used with gerunds, tenses such as the infinitive and other verb constructions.
When reflexive verbs are commonly used in conversation. Certain descriptions, passive sentences, impersonal expressions and how they can be used to mean 'each other'.
   
  What you can learn from this lesson
   
Being able to formulate reflexive verb constructions in multiple tenses.
Understanding how reflexive pronouns in certain verb constructions can be placed either before or after the verb that they relate to. Sometimes there is no choice!
To build knowledge of when reflexive verbs are used in conversation. Recognising common sentence structures and knowing which types of sentences in English are formed using reflexive verbs in Spanish.
A sound understanding of the reflexive pronoun 'se'. How it can be used to alter meaning, depending on the structure of the sentence it is used with.
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PART 1

 

The previous lesson entitled Reflexive Verbs part 1 explained what reflexive verbs are and how they are formed and used in the present simple tense. This lesson looks at how reflexive verbs are used with other tenses and how they are used in common sentence structures.

 

This part of the lesson looks specifically at how reflexive verbs are used in other more usual tenses.

 

Using reflexive verbs in the same way as they are used with the present simple tense

 

The majority of tenses with reflexive verbs are formed in the same way as they are formed with the present simple tense.

 

1 - The verbs are formed in the same way as if they were non reflexive. They take the same stem and ending changes.

2 - The reflexive pronoun are normally placed BEFORE the reflexive verb formation.

 

Past simple (preterite), tense

 

levantarse to get up
afeitarse to shave
irse to leave

 

Me levanté, me afeité y me salí de la casa. - I got up, shaved and left the house.

 

Imperfect tense

 

llamarse to be called
casarse to marry

 

(Tú) te llamabas un campeón. - You used to call yourself a champion.

Ellos se casaron por iglesia. - They got married in a church.

 

Future tense

 

enojarse to get angry
acostarse to go to bed

 

Me enojaré si me dicen no.   - I will get angry if they tell me no.

Vamos a casa y entonces nos acostaremos -Lets go home and then we will go to bed.

 

Conditional tense with would

 

arreglarse to get ready

 

(Yo) me arreglaría si fuera tú. - I would get ready if I were you.

 

Subjunctive tenses

 

reírse to laugh
sentarse to sit down

 

(Yo) quiero que (tú) te rías. - I want you to laugh.

Si (tú) te sentaras estarías más cómodo. - If you were to sit down you would be more comfortable.

 

PART 2

 

The second part of this lesson looks at those tenses where reflexive verbs might be formed differently to the way they are formed with the present simple tense and the other tenses as described in part one of the lesson. These differences occur when forming the imperative tense, the conditional tenses with could and should, the gerund and tenses with ‘haber’. The main difference normally occurs with the position of the reflexive pronoun. In many constructions an accent mark or tilde is also added.

 

The imperative tense

 

1 - The reflexive pronoun is placed before the verb in NEGATIVE imperative tense formations.


preocuparse (to worry oneself) No te preocupes. Don’t worry. - you
asustarse (to get scared) No se asusten. Don’t be scared. – you all polite

 

2 - The reflexive pronoun is added, to the verb in POSITIVE imperative tense formations.

 

apurarse (to hurry up) Apúrate. Hurry up. - you
vestirse (to get dress) Vístanse. Get dressed. – you all polite

 

3 - Imperative tense verbs are formed in the same way as if they were non reflexive except in positive nosotros/as and vosotros/as formations. In these cases the final s or d is dropped.

 

irse (to leave)   Vámonos. Let’s leave.
callarse (to be quite) Callaos. Shut up. – you all

 

The conditional tenses with could and should

 

1 - The reflexive verb is always used in its infinitive form.

2 - The reflexive pronoun can either be placed before the verbs ‘poder’ or ‘deber’ or it can be added to the infinitive reflexive verb.

3 - The infinitive reflexive verb is always placed after the conditional verb ‘could’ or should’

 

secarse (to dry oneself) (Tú) deberías secarte. You should dry yourself.
  (Tú) te deberías secar. You should dry yourself.

jubilarse (to retire) Ellos podrían jubilarse temprano. They could retire early.
  Ellos se podrían jubilar temprano. They could retire early.

 

When forming the ‘gerund’ and infinitives

 

1 - If the infinitive or gerund follows another verb (verb construction, or verb + preposition), then the reflexive pronoun can come either before or after the infinitive or gerund.

 

probarse (to try on) Me estoy probando los zapatos. I am trying on the shoes.
  Estoy probándome los zapatos. I am trying on the shoes.
  ¿(Tú) vas a probártelo? Are you going to try it on?
  ¿Te vas a probarlo? Are you going to try it on?

Note: If a direct object pronoun is also used (in this case lo), then it will always come after the reflexive pronoun (in this case te). The direct object pronoun can also come before or after the verb. Take a look at the lesson on direct and indirect object pronouns to learn more.

 

2 - If the infinitive or gerund does not follow another verb then the reflexive pronoun must come directly after the infinitive or gerund.

 

maquillarse to put on makeup


= Ella está maquillándose. (She’s putting on her makeup.)

= No es necesario maquillarme mas. (Its not necessary for me to put on any more makeup.)

 

When forming sentences with ‘haber

 

1 - Normally in perfect tenses with ‘haber’ the reflexive pronoun should come before ‘haber’ and the past participle.

 

quemarse to burn oneself


= (Yo) me he quemado. (I’ve burnt myself.)

= (Yo) me había quemado . (I had burnt myself.)

 

2 - In more complex sentences with ‘haber’ where another verb precedes ‘haber’ such as in conditional sentences with ‘could’ and ‘should’ the reflexive pronoun can come before the entire verb construction or can be added to the infinitive form of ‘haber’.

 

meterse to interfere / get into


= (Tú) no te deberías haber metido con esto.

= (You shouldn’t have interfered with it.)

= (Tú) no deberías haberte metido con esto.

= (You shouldn’t have interfered with it.)

 

PART 3

 

The last part of the lesson looks at in what other ways reflexive verbs can be used in speech.

 

1 - Using reflexive pronouns to mean each other or one another.

 

These types of verb constructions are formed in the same way as normal reflexive verbs as follows:


Nos molestamos.  We annoy each other or we annoy one another.
Se quieren.  They love each other or they love one another.
Os odiáis.  They (all) hate each other or they (all) hate one another.

 

2 - In certain expressions that refer to ‘you’ or ‘they’ but which don’t actually refer to anyone in particular.

 

¡Se dice que el mundo es plano! They say the world is flat!
¿Cómo se escríbe? How do you spell it?
¡No se permite! Its not allowed!

 

3 - As an alternative to forming passive sentences. For more information on the passive tense take a look at the separate lesson on the passive tense.

 

passive Son fabricados en India. They’re made in India.
reflexive verb Se fabrican en India. They’re made in India.
passive Español es hablado en España. Spanish is spoken in Spain
reflexive verb Se habla Español en España. Spanish is spoken in Spain
passive Muchos coches son vendidos aquí. Lots of cars are sold here.
reflexive verb Se venden muchos coches aquí. Lots of cars are sold here.

 

That concludes this lesson on reflexive verbs part 2. If you have not done so already watch the actual video for this lesson and then try one of the associated quizzes to test your understanding.

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Reflexive Verbs - Part 2 (Other Tenses & Uses)
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